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We're sure you know how it feels to have activity-related joint flare-ups, which can be summed up as having "TIN MAN JOINTS."

Because it really is just like the Tin Man from The Wizard of Oz, who was slowed down due to his creaky joints, right?

In fact…

  • It makes getting routine exercise far more difficult.
  • It can disturb the one thing that no one ever wants disturbed because it makes them feel terrible and can lead to serious issues – their sleep.
  • It can often hurt relationships because you can't do many of the things you once did together… including "getting intimate" the way you once used to!


Here's the Really GOOD News


There is finally a powerful and easy way to address joint discomfort.

That’s because consuming the right types and amounts of certain nutrients can provide very powerful support for healthy joints.

And you’re about to discover three specific nutrients, and the best way to get them, that can help you experience FREEDOM from the issues in as little as 5 days – guaranteed.

First, though, it's important you understand the 2 BIG PROBLEMS that are causing so many people such unnecessary issues with their joints in the first place.

Big Problems #1:
The Downsides of Our Modern Lifestyle

knee painknee pain

About 91 million adults in the U.S. struggle with occasional joint discomfort. That's 43% of all adults!1

While the highest percentage of those affected are in the 65+ range, there's been a very significant rise in joint discomfort in the 45 - 64 range.

And the rates of joint discomfort are higher for women, with 68% of women over the age of 65 experiencing joint discomfort.

Now, one of the biggest myths about joint discomfort is that it "just comes with age."

However, joint discomfort is NOT inevitable, whatever your age or circumstances.

So, then, what exactly is causing "Tin Man Joints"?

Well, there are many "pluses" to our modern lifestyles, of course.

However, all the same "negatives" that lead to other health problems have a very negative impact on your joints, including these top 5:

  1. Being overweight.2,3 For example, being just 10 pounds overweight can mean an additional 30 – 60 pounds of force on the knee with each step.4 Plus, excess body fat leads to unhealthy levels of inflammation, which can contribute to joint deterioration.5-8
  1. Poor diet. What you eat has a profound influence on your joint health, as you're about to see. Unfortunately, the diets of most people today are low in key nutrients your body and joints need and high in those that work against it.
  1. Unhealthy inflammation levels. Many factors in our modern lifestyles contribute to this, ranging from too much sugar consumption to not enough exercise.9-11
  1. Imbalanced hormones. Many factors in our modern lifestyles contribute to this, too, such as toxins in everything from indoor air to personal care products.
  1. Overuse and misuse. From sports to exercise to everyday activities like gardening, people unknowingly stress their joints.12-21

Now, in an ideal world, if we just fixed all these issues above, that activity-related joint discomfort and all the other issues it causes would largely go away.

However, while we do recommend working toward improvement in these areas…

This is the real world.

So, again, the great news is there's a 3-part nutrient solution that quickly provides VERY powerful support for healthy, lubricated joints.

Big Problem #2:
Overhyped Solutions

Now, if you’ve already ever taken a supplement to help your joints, a big KUDOS to you for at least taking action with your health.

HOWEVER, it’s important to know…


Some Typical Joint Supplements & Solutions DO NOT Work as Well

1. Glucosamine & Chondroitin

Far and away, the most common nutrients in joint supplements are glucosamine and chondroitin. Unfortunately, these nutrients might not yield the results you want!

In a study published in the prestigious The New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that a full 6 months of supplementation with glucosamine and chondroitin was NO BETTER THAN A PLACEBO when it comes to reducing joint discomfort.22

You certainly deserve better results.

2. One-Trick Ponies

There are some nutrients out there like curcumin, CBD, and collagen that may help with specific symptoms, such as joint discomfort. However, they can be likened to “one-trick ponies” that don't fully tackle all of the problems.

3. Fairy Dusting

Some companies only add an insignificant amount of the right ingredients, a practice known as fairy dusting. But remember, the right quantities of the right ingredients matter in a big way!

woman with pillswoman with pillsJoints in pain

A CLEAR Understanding of What Can Really Help

So, what WILL actually help you?

As noted at the start, the VERY good news is that there are specific ingredients that – when taken in the proper form and amounts – provide powerful support to address the factors that lead to joint discomfort.

To understand why those important ingredients work so well, you first need to understand the following 3 points:

1. The Collagen DECLINE
Collagen is the main protein in your cartilage, which is the spongy tissue that cushions the ends of your bones where your joints meet. It protects your bones from grinding against each other.

Due to various issues, such as the "modern lifestyle" factors I described above, this collagen can reduce over time.23

In fact, by the time people reach their "middle ages," healthy bodies often produces less than HALF the collagen they did in youth!

This normal process means decreased cartilage, which in turn means less cushioning, which in turn can mean… activity-related joint discomfort and stiffness!

2. The ATTACK of the Enzymes
As we age, enzymes known as MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) and 5-LOX (5-Lipoxygenase) can run rampant.

While these enzymes have important purpose in the body, if they do run rampant – often due to modern lifestyle factors like those noted above – this can lead to even more collagen and cartilage reduction!24

3. The DRY OUT
Just like the Tin Man, your joints need lubricating fluid. Unlike the Tin Man, oil won't work for you. Instead, hyaluronic acid is the key component of our body's joint fluid (a.k.a. "synovial fluid.") It helps reduce friction between bones by providing lubrication.

Unfortunately, as cartilage levels decrease, so does both the quantity and quality of this joint fluid.25,26 And, again, just like the Tin Man, that makes it harder for you to move about freely and ENJOY life.

Joint 33X Bottle

Results In as Little as 5 DAYS

Congratulations, you now likely know more than most people on the planet about why activity-related joint discomfort is so common.

And you now deserve to know what is guaranteed to help you!

It's called Joint 33X, and YES, it can help reduce activity-related joint discomfort and related issues in as little as 5 days.

That's because it comes from the science team at BioTRUST, America's premium online nutrition brand known for premium quality, innovative, and independently tested SAFE supplements trusted by millions of customers worldwide…

And it provides you 3 ingredients, in the right forms and amounts, to quickly address the 3-point breakdown and support your healthy, mobile joints… which, in short, means greater FREEDOM to do the things you want to do!

3 Essential Ingredients

Joint 33X Uniquely Provides You
ALL 3 Key Ingredients

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spoonful of Collagen

In the body, type II collagen is key to the healthy cartilage needed to protect the joints and prevent bones from rubbing against each other and causing discomfort.

UC-II® is a very special and patented undenatured source of this type II collagen.

It works very differently from the normal collagen that is so popular now, and it is believed to work so well by prompting a process called "oral tolerance."27

This process ultimately engages the immune system in the repair of its own joint cartilage!

Now, because there are no major food sources of UC-II® collagen, you must get it in supplement form.

And each serving of Joint 33X provides you the 40mg of UC-II® that various studies suggest is the ideal amount.

In fact, one study published in the renowned International Journal of Medical Sciences showed 40mg of UC-II® to be significantly more effective at reducing joint discomfort and improving overall joint function than glucosamine and chondroitin.28

After 3 months, the UC-II® group experienced a 40% reduction in joint discomfort compared to only a 15.4% improvement in the glucosamine and chondroitin group – that's nearly 3 TIMES BETTER results with UC-II®. What's more, the UC-II® group improved functional capacity by 20% compared to a measly 6% improvement in the glucosamine and chondroitin group – that's greater than a 3-fold enhancement in daily activities and quality of life.

Two additional randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have also compared UC-II® head-to-head with glucosamine and chondroitin.29,30

In both instances, UC-II® reigned supreme, leading to significantly greater reductions in joint discomfort and stiffness and improvements in physical function.

For example, in a study recently published in the Nutrition Journal, folks taking UC-II® for 6 months experienced a 63% greater reduction in joint discomfort compared to the glucosamine and chondroitin group. The UC-II® group also benefited from 34% greater improvement in functional capacity and 28% greater reduction in joint stiffness than the glucosamine and chondroitin group.

And finally, in a study published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, supplementation with UC-II® resulted in significantly greater joint mobility and flexibility compared to the placebo group.31

For example, after 4 months, the folks taking UC-II® experienced a 7° increase in knee range of motion (while the placebo group experienced no change). No big deal, right? WRONG. Studies have shown that losing just 3 - 5°of knee extension can significantly impact quality of life and be a warning sign of much worse joint problems on the horizon.

What's more, the UC-II® group experienced significantly reduced joint discomfort after exercise, and they were also able to exercise significantly longer! In fact, after taking UC-II® for 4 months, the study participants could exercise TWICE as long as they could at the beginning of the study before experiencing any joint discomfort. By contrast, the placebo group experienced no such changes.

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Remember how collagen-degrading enzymes known as MMPs and 5-LOX may lead to even more reductions in collagen and cartilage?

Well, AprèsFlex® is a powerful extract from Boswellia serrata, a tree that produces a highly scented sap that has been a prized substance since ancient times.

And AprèsFlex® is able to uniquely target the enzymes MMP-3 and 5-LOX.32-34

That means it helps protect against collagen reduction and promotes healthy joints and connective tissues, reducing those activity-related joint "flare-ups."

Of course, since AprèsFlex® is a special extract from Boswellia serrata, you must get it in supplement form.

And each serving of Joint 33X provides you a full 100mg of this highly effective ingredient.

Now, there have been 10 different studies – including 3 human clinical trials – that show AprèsFlex® can be effective starting in as little as 5 days.

For example, in a randomized controlled trial published in the International Journal of Medical Sciences, AprèsFlex® was shown to significantly reduce joint discomfort and stiffness and markedly improve overall physical function compared to the placebo – with measurable results in just 5 days.35

The participants experienced 16% reduction in joint discomfort after 5 days and a 50% reduction after 30 days.

In a different randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, researchers again found that daily supplementation with AprèsFlex® for 3 months led to significant reductions in joint discomfort and joint stiffness – with results they could feel in just one week!

And AprèsFlex® resulted in a 61.7% reduction in joint discomfort after 90 days.36

Powerful Support for Tin Man Joints Graphdivider image

3)  Mobilee® to LUBRICATE

hyal joint

Just like oil for the Tin Man, your joints need "synovial fluid" to provide lubrication and reduce friction between the bones. Unfortunately, due to factors we've covered, this fluid can be reduced in quantity and quality.

Now, the patented Mobilee® is what you may well consider a “natural wonder.”

That's because it's high in hyaluronic acid and other components, such as collagen and polysaccharides, that work together to enhance its lubricating effects.

There are no food sources of Mobilee®, so you must get it in supplement form.

And Joint 33X provides you 40mg with each serving.

Mobilee®'s effectiveness has been tested in over 10 scientific and clinical studies, including 4 randomized double-blind placebo-controlled human trials.

It's been shown to be up to 5 times more powerful and effective than other forms of hyaluronic acid.37

A study published in Nutrition Journal showed that supplementation with Mobilee® for just 4 weeks led to a significant reduction in activity-related joint flare-ups compared to the placebo group. After 8 weeks, those supplementing with Mobilee® experienced a significant improvement in joint comfort compared to a placebo.38

In another study published in Clinical Nutrition Supplements, researchers found that participants supplementing with Mobilee® experienced a significant reduction in activity-related joint discomfort—an improvement substantially greater than the placebo group!39

And finally, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in the journal Genes & Nutrition, researchers found that participants taking Mobilee® for 3 months demonstrated significantly greater improvement in muscle strength compared to the placebo group.40

However, Let's Be Real.
You're MOST Going to ❤️ Joint 33X Because…

Jump for Love

Okay, so you now understand exactly why the three key ingredients in Joint 33X are so helpful for supporting healthy, mobile joints.

Furthermore, you’ll appreciate that Joint 33X is non-GMO and FREE of anything harmful.

In fact, all ingredients are independently tested for purity, potency, and safety and come with a certificate of analysis for verification. Joint 33X is manufactured in an internationally recognized, FDA-registered facility, known for its quality and service, that is GMP-certified through the prestigious NSF organization.

Plus, unlike those big bulky pills so common amongst inferior joint supplements, Joint 33X comes in an easy-to-swallow capsule – and all you need to do is take ONE capsule daily.

But let's be real.

The #1 reason you are going to LOVE Joint 33X is because it means real help for joint discomfort!

Yes, you're going to love Joint 33X if you want freedom from "feeling old" and to enjoy the simple things… to sleep better and exercise… and you want the freedom to keep doing the activities you love without your knees, elbows, shoulders, and other joints getting in your way.

The bottom line, as you’ll soon experience firsthand, is that Joint 33X is a unique and powerful combination of the 3 key ingredients to help you stop ever feeling like the Tin Man!

Best of All, It's From BioTRUST

BioTRUST is America's premium online nutrition brand, known for having shipped over 15 million premium, honest nutrition products to their loyal customers around the world. BioTRUST was started in 2011 by Joel Marion and Josh Bezoni, two best friends whose mission was to create a nutrition company that was authentic, honest, and always put quality and service first. Toward that end, BioTRUST...

  • Searches the globe to source only the highest-quality ingredients for peak potency, absorption, sustainability, and overall better health for you and our planet.
  • Has independent labs test products to ensure potency and purity.
  • Ensures the quality of all products is verified by a certificate of analysis.
  • Works only with top-tier manufacturers.
  • Takes enormous pride in providing customers with world-class customer service and a 5-star customer experience.
  • Cares about community, too. To date, BioTRUST has helped provide over 5.6 million meals* to hungry kids through our partnership with the nonprofit® and we've helped grant over 220 wishes for kids with life-threatening medical conditions through our partnership with Make-A-Wish®.

Real People. Real Results.


"Superb product. It really works because when I do not take this supplement for a few days, I feel it in my hip joints. I highly recommend to anyone with joint discomfort."

Candice M. - Verified Purchaser


"I have been on Joint 33X for a year. I ran out and forgot to reorder my subscription. After two weeks, I noticed it in my knees, hips and elbows. I reordered my Joint 33X during the third week. I reordered six months' worth and began taking them right away. After the third day, I noticed that my elbows and knees were doing better and now my knees are back to normal. Thank you, Joint 33X"

Marge A. - Verified Purchaser


"I bought Joint 33X, and now I am doing much better. My legs and back were in a lot of discomfort, and now, since I have been taking this, I am feeling like a brand-new person."

Margaret S. - Verified Purchaser


"About three years ago I developed some discomfort in my left knee, usually after sitting, when I stood up. I started looking at joint supplements on the computer. The only one that interested me was BioTRUST. It was the only one that had UC-II® collagen. I ordered a bottle. After it came, I started taking 1 a day. After 7 days, I realized my knee wasn't bothering me. I take one a day every day. Yesterday I mowed the yard, and in April, I will be 81 years young."

John M. - Verified Purchaser


"I absolutely LOVE BioTRUST Joint 33X, and I highly recommend this product. I will always make sure I have extra bottles of Joint 33X in my house so I never run out again… I was able to finally start working out again, play with my daughter and my doggies again, and not have any discomfort. This product is amazing, and I highly recommend this to anyone with joint discomfort. :-) I love all BioTRUST products, but this is definitely one that I will always make sure I have here in my house at all times. :-)"

Christina N. - Verified Purchaser


"I have been using Joint 33X for three weeks. I noticed a remarkable improvement right away. Joint 33X has allowed me more mobility. I am confident that with continued use of Joint 33X, I will be able to look forward to a better quality of life. I am more active now. I am 55, and with continued use, I look forward to many more active years. Thanks, BioTRUST, for all of your quality products. BioTRUST customer for life."

Laura B. - Verified Purchaser

Joint 33X

Very Special Introductory Offer Today – Up to 51% OFF!

BioTRUST's Joint 33X is one of the world's most expensive joint supplements.

That's because, as you now know, it provides you the right types and quantities of 3 powerful ingredients that provide exceptional support for healthy joints.

And it does it all in just one tiny, easy-to-swallow capsule per day.

However, right now you're getting your Joint 33X here for as low as $24 per bottle with our best money-saving package! That's an amazing savings of up to 51% OFF, and we guarantee it's the lowest price anywhere. (We cannot, however, guarantee this special price will be available after today. So, if interested, please order yours ASAP.)

PLUS 3 Bonuses Worth Over $50!

Free Shipping


Enjoy free U.S. ground shipping straight to your door (or special discounted International shipping). You can track that status of your order anytime (you will receive tracking information once your order ships).

Free Coaching

2. FREE VIP Live Health and Fitness Coaching for Life 

You'll get live, personalized coaching from BioTRUST's team of expert nutrition and health coaches, as well as instant access to our inspiring, supportive community of people with goals like yours – free for life!

11 Superfoods for Superior Joints

3. FREE New eReport The 11 Superfoods for Superior Joints

In this free new report you'll get instantly, you'll discover all the most effective foods you'll want to eat more of to improve your joint health and your quality of life in the process – the perfect companion to your Joint 33X.

With BioTRUST, you're always protected by the 60-Day Total Satisfaction Guarantee. If for any reason at all you are unsatisfied with your purchase, just send it back to us for a fast and friendly refund of the full purchase price, even on empty bottles, up to 60 days after securing your order today.

60-Day Guarantee
Feed a hungry child

You Save Big on Joint 33X, BioTRUST Helps Feed a Hungry Child

BioTRUST cares about our customers and community. For every Joint 33X order today, we help support programs that feed hungry children through our partnership with®. To date, BioTRUST has helped provide over 5.6 million meals* to hungry kids.

What's more, with the support of our customers, we've funded over 220 wishes for kids with life-threatening medical conditions through our partnership with Make-A-Wish®. Through our partnership with Pencils of Promise®, BioTRUST has built three schools for underprivileged children, and along with®, we've provided clean drinking water for hundreds of families in third-world countries. It's support from customers like you that allows us to give back. Thank you!

*No Kid Hungry® does not provide individual meals; donations help support programs that feed children. Learn more at

Order Your Joint 33X Now ↓↓↓

Yes, as you now know, Joint 33X can help your joints like nothing else out there can.

You see, you truly don't need to "feel old" and avoid doing things you were once able to do.

You don't need to have discomfort, and your sleep, weight, and relationships don't need to suffer, either.

The key is to take the right action, and Joint 33X is that right action.

With Joint 33X, you're getting…

  • All three of the key ingredients – in their premium forms and effective amounts – that provide powerful and comprehensive support for healthy joints:
    • 40mg per serving of UC-II®
    • 100mg per serving of AprèsFlex®
    • 40mg per serving of Mobilee®
  • Non-GMO and free of anything harmful.
  • Simple to take – just one tiny easy-to-swallow capsule daily
  • 60-day total satisfaction guarantee – just return it for your money back.
  • When you order, we feed a hungry child through®.
  • 3 free bonuses worth over $50.
  • Up to 51% OFF today on this page
3 bottles of Joint 33X3 bottles of Joint 33X

How Much Should I Order?

  • Each bottle of Joint 33X provides you 30 capsules, a full 30-day supply. Because the cost savings are substantial when you buy in bulk, and you'll want to take this product ongoing once you experience the amazing results, most of our customers order the 3 or 6 bottle packages to save.
  • Half of all customers order an extra bottle or two for their family, friends, or significant other – another reason to consider multiple bottles.
  • It makes sense to stock up now as sale prices won't last.
  • These are the guaranteed lowest prices you'll find anywhere on Joint 33X.
3 bottles of Joint 33X
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Q: How much should I buy today?

It makes sense to stock up now, especially considering this is the lowest price on Joint 33X you'll find anywhere – lower than Amazon and our own website. With all that in mind, we highly recommend stocking up and saving more today with our 3- or 6-bottle options.

Q: What specifically makes Joint 33X the right joint health supplement?

Joint 33X is a 3-in-1, next generation joint health supplement that features THREE patented joint-nourishing ingredients backed by more than a DOZEN human studies: UC-II®, AprèsFlex® and Mobilee®. Joint 33X gives you not one, not two but THREE key ingredients to provide exceptional support for joint health. And you'll be relieved to know that Joint 33X provides trusted joint support you can feel in as little 5 days. Perhaps best of all, all this joint-nourishing support comes in ONE small capsule you take just ONCE a day. Like all BioTRUST supplements, Joint 33X undergoes 3rd party testing to ensure purity, potency and safety.

Q: What is the best way to use Joint 33X?

Take one (1) capsule daily

Q: What are the ingredients and amounts used in the formula?

Supplement Facts

Q: How long will a bottle of Joint 33X last?

Each bottle will last 30 days when used as recommended.

Q: Does this product contain caffeine or any other stimulants?

No. This product is caffeine- and stimulant-free.

Q: Are there any allergy concerns with this product?

Joint 33X is manufactured in a facility that also processes milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts and wheat. Always review the label for the most accurate information.

Q: If I have a medical condition, can I take this product?

Joint 33X is intended for use by healthy adults over 18 years old. Consult your physician before use if you are taking any prescription or over-the-counter medications or being treated for any medical condition. If you experience any adverse reaction to this product, please consult your physician.

Q: What if this product doesn't work for me?

While Joint 33X was created to work, if for any reason at all you are unsatisfied with your purchase, just send it back to us, and we will issue a prompt and courteous refund of the full purchase price even on empty bottles. You're always protected by our naturally-honest 60-Day Money Back Guarantee.

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Joint 33X Buy 1Joint 33X Buy 3Joint 33X Buy 6



  1. Jafarzadeh SR, Felson DT. Updated estimates suggest a much higher prevalence of arthritis in US adults than previous ones. Arthritis Rheumatol Hoboken NJ. 2018;70:185–92.
  2. Cicuttini FM, Baker JR, Spector TD. The association of obesity with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in women: a twin study. J Rheumatol. 1996;23:1221–6.
  3. Anderson JJ, Felson DT. Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the first national Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HANES I). Evidence for an association with overweight, race, and physical demands of work. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128:179–89.
  4. Felson DT. Weight and osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol Suppl. 1995;43:7–9.
  5. Hajer GR, van Haeften TW, Visseren FLJ. Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases. Eur Heart J. 2008;29:2959–71.
  6. Hummasti S, Hotamisligil GS. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in obesity and diabetes. Circ Res. 2010;107:579–91.
  7. Gregor MF, Hotamisligil GS. Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Annu Rev Immunol. 2011;29:415–45.
  8. Coppack SW. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue. Proc Nutr Soc. 2001;60:349–56.
  9. Patel C, Ghanim H, Ravishankar S, Sia CL, Viswanathan P, Mohanty P, et al. Prolonged reactive oxygen species generation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation after a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal in the obese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:4476–9.
  10. Aljada A, Mohanty P, Ghanim H, Abdo T, Tripathy D, Chaudhuri A, et al. Increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB and decrease in inhibitor kappaB in mononuclear cells after a mixed meal: evidence for a proinflammatory effect. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79:682–90.
  11. Aljada A, Friedman J, Ghanim H, Mohanty P, Hofmeyer D, Chaudhuri A, et al. Glucose ingestion induces an increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB, a fall in cellular inhibitor kappaB, and an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA by mononuclear cells in healthy human subjects. Metabolism. 2006;55:1177–85.
  12. Amin S, Goggins J, Niu J, Guermazi A, Grigoryan M, Hunter DJ, et al. Occupation-related squatting, kneeling, and heavy lifting and the knee joint: a magnetic resonance imaging-based study in men. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:1645–9.
  13. D’Souza JC, Werner RA, Keyserling WM, Gillespie B, Rabourn R, Ulin S, et al. Analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) using expert ratings of job categories. Am J Ind Med. 2008;51:37–46.
  14. Heliövaara M, Mäkelä M, Impivaara O, Knekt P, Aromaa A, Sievers K. Association of overweight, trauma and workload with coxarthrosis. A health survey of 7,217 persons. Acta Orthop Scand. 1993;64:513–8.
  15. Lau EC, Cooper C, Lam D, Chan VN, Tsang KK, Sham A. Factors associated with osteoarthritis of the hip and knee in Hong Kong Chinese: obesity, joint injury, and occupational activities. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152:855–62.
  16. Roach KE, Persky V, Miles T, Budiman-Mak E. Biomechanical aspects of occupation and osteoarthritis of the hip: a case-control study. J Rheumatol. 1994;21:2334–40.
  17. Rytter S, Egund N, Jensen L, Bonde J. Occupational kneeling and radiographic tibiofemoral and patellofemoral osteoarthritis. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2009;4:19.
  18. Tangtrakulwanich B, Chongsuvivatwong V, Geater AF. Habitual Floor Activities Increase Risk of Knee Osteoarthritis: Clin Orthop. 2007;454:147–54.
  19. Gelber A. Incidence and Risk Factors for Osteoarthritis in the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study. [Baltimore, MD]: Johns Hopkins University; 1999.
  20. Roach K. The Association Between the Biomechanical Aspects of Past Occupation and Osteoarthritis of the Hip in Men. [Chicago, IL]: University of Illinois at Chicago; 1991.
  21. Sutton AJ. A case-control study to investigate the relation between low and moderate levels of physical activity and osteoarthritis of the knee using data collected as part of the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:756–64.
  22. Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Klein MA, O’Dell JR, Hooper MM, et al. Glucosamine, Chondroitin Sulfate, and the Two in Combination for Painful Knee Osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:795–808.
  23. Lotz M, Loeser RF. Effects of aging on articular cartilage homeostasis. Bone. 2012;51:241–8.
  24. Shane Anderson A, Loeser RF. Why is osteoarthritis an age-related disease? Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24:15–26.
  25. Van Den Bekerom MPJ, Mylle G, Rys B, Mulier M. Viscosupplementation in symptomatic severe hip osteoarthritis: a review of the literature and report on 60 patients. Acta Orthop Belg. 2006;72:560–8.
  26. Takahashi T, Tominaga K, Takano H, Ariyoshi W, Habu M, Fukuda J, et al. A decrease in the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid in synovial fluid from patients with temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Pathol Med Off Publ Int Assoc Oral Pathol Am Acad Oral Pathol. 2004;33:224–9.
  27. Park K-S, Park M-J, Cho M-L, Kwok S-K, Ju JH, Ko H-J, et al. Type II collagen oral tolerance; mechanism and role in collagen-induced arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Mod Rheumatol. 2009;19:581–9.
  28. Crowley DC, Lau FC, Sharma P, Evans M, Guthrie N, Bagchi M, et al. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Int J Med Sci. 2009;6:312–21.
  29. Saiyed ZM, Hull, Jonathan JP. Safety and efficacy of undenatured type II collagen in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a clinical trial. Scripps 12th annual natural supplement conference; 2015 Jan 15; San Diego, CA.
  30. Lugo JP, Saiyed ZM, Lane NE. Efficacy and tolerability of an undenatured type II collagen supplement in modulating knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J [Internet]. 2015 [cited 2016 Aug 16];15. Available from:
  31. Lugo JP, Saiyed ZM, Lau FC, Molina JPL, Pakdaman MN, Shamie A, et al. Undenatured type II collagen (UC-II®) for joint support: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10:48.
  32. Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J, Anazodo MI, Subramanian LR, Ammon HP. Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992;261:1143–6.
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